HATEOAS Console: the beginning

At 7digital we have 2 days’ innovation time every month. During this time we can work on our own pet projects. This post is about my current project.

You can find the source of this project at https://github.com/bnathyuw/Hateoas-Console


RESTful web architecture is becoming increasingly influential in the design of both web services and web sites, but it is still very easy to produce half-hearted implementations of it, and the tools that exist don’t always help.

In this project, I want to address this problem by building a new REST console that will:

  • Reward good implementations by making it easy to take advantage of all their RESTful features;
  • Help improve less good implementations by exposing their shortcomings.

Basic principles of a RESTful interface

Richardson and Ruby (2007 pp. 79 ff.) present a good analysis of RESTful interface design. Drawing on Fielding (2000 s. 5), but with a focus on actual practice, they identify four key principles or Resource-Oriented Architecture:

  1. Addressability;
  2. Statelessness;
  3. Connectedness;
  4. Uniform Interface.

Addressability means that any resource in the application that a consumer could want to know about has at least one URI. This criterion is fairly coextensive with Fielding’s Identification of Resources requirement.

Statelessness means that every request should contain all the information needed for its processing. This overlaps with Fielding’s requirement that messages be self-descriptive, and that hypermedia be the representation of application state.

Connectedness means that each resource representation should give addresses of all related resources. The most effective way to ensure connectedness will often be to produce an entry-point resource, from which it is possible to navigate to all other resources. This furnishes the other part of Fielding’s requirement for hypermedia as the engine of application state.

Uniform Interface means that all resources can be manipulated in the same way. For web services, this almost invariably means using the HTTP verbs, viz DELETE, HEAD, GET, OPTIONS, POST, PUT &c. This principle supports Fielding’s self-description criterion, and specifies the means of manipulation of resources.

Most REST consoles are fairly successful in accommodating principles 1, 2 and 4, but fail significantly in accommodating principle 3. Under Fielding’s terminology, existing REST consoles give little support for hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS).

Existing REST consoles

There exist several good consoles for manually consuming RESTful services. These include:

Screenshot: Simple REST Client for Chrome
Simple REST Client for Chrome
Screen shot of REST Client for Firefox
REST Client for Firefox
Screenshot: apigee

All of these clients work on a similar model: you enter a URI in the address box, choose an HTTP verb and click a button to send the request. You also have the option of adding headers and a request body. The headers and content of the response are then displayed on screen for the user to inspect.

How these consoles support the REST principles


Addressability is a core notion in these consoles: the address box is a primary part of the UI, and you have to enter something here in order to make a request.


Statelessness is perhaps the easiest of the four principles to achieve, as the consoles operate on a request-response model.

In fact, what is useful in a console is the very opposite of statelessness: the console should be able to remember your preferences so that you do not have to enter them for each request.

With a significant exception discussed below, all three consoles do a fair job of remembering your choice of headers from one request to another, which takes some of the burden off the user. Apigee and REST Client for Firefox are also able handle OAuth authentication, which is a nice feature.


None of the consoles deals successfully with connectedness. If you want to follow a link from the response, you have to copy the resource URI into the address box and submit another request.

Apigee differs from the other two consoles in having a side panel which lists the principle URI schemata for the service under test. This initially seems like a helpful feature, but has several unfortunate consequences:

  • Apigee uses WADL to create its directory of links. This encourages a return to the RPC-stle of service architecture, which thinks of a web service as being made up of a limited set of discrete endpoints, each with a particular purpose, rather than an unlimited network of interconnected resources which can be manipulated through a uniform interface.
  • As the endpoints are listed in the directory panel, it is less obvious when a resource does not contain links to related resources.
  • Apigee has no way of filling in variable parts of a URI. If, for instance, you click me/favourites/track_id (PUT), it enters https://api.soundcloud.com/me/favorites/{track_id}.json in the address box. You then have to replace {track_id} with the specific track ID you are interested in. This is of course no help if you don’t know which track you want to add to your favourites!
  • Each endpoint is listed with a .json suffix, no matter what format you have just requested. Also, any request headers you have filled in are forgotten when you click on a new endpoint.

These shortcomings not only make the console frustrating to use, but also encourage non-connected, RPC-style architectural decisions.

Uniform Interface

As with Addressability, the Uniform Interface is at the core of these consoles. The HTTP verb selector is prominent in each UI, and it is easy to switch from one to another.

Apigee supports GET, POST, DELETE and PUT, Simple REST Client for Chrome adds support for HEAD and OPTIONS, and REST Client for Firefox adds support for TRACE, as well as several more obscure verbs.

What none of these consoles does is make any attempt to figure out what representation of a resource should be submitted in a POST or PUT request body. This is particularly surprising in Apigee, as this information should be available in the API WADL document.


There are close points of comparison between a REST console and a web browser: each is designed to make requests from a particular URI using one of a small number of HTTP verbs, and then display a representation of that resource to the user. What makes a web browser so powerful — and indeed was one of the founding principles of the internet — is that the user can click on links to get from one page to another. When you the primacy of the clickable link to the success of browsers it becomes all the more puzzling that REST consoles do not implement this functionality.

The Project

Basic principles

The purpose of this project is to attempt to address some of the shortcomings of the currently available REST consoles, while retaining their good features:

  • The basic format of the existing consoles is successful: an address box, and verb chooser, and a send button;
  • Rendering all details of the response is also vital; REST Client for Firefox gives you choice of viewing raw and rendered data, which is a nice additional feature;
  • The client should support as wide as possible a range of HTTP verbs, encompassing at least GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS, HEAD;
  • The ability to remember headers is very useful and should be kept, especially when clicking on a link;
  • OAuth integration is a nice feature and worth implementing if possible;
  • It would be very useful for the console to make a reasonable attempt at figuring out the response body format for PUT and POST requests;
  • Reliance on a WADL document encourages unRESTful thinking and should be avoided.
  • All appropriate links in the response body should be identified, and it should be simple to make further requests and to explore the API by clicking on them.

Implementation decisions

I decided to implement this project in HTML and JavaScript, as this seemed the most portable platform. I am working on the assumption that the finished product will be a chrome extension, as this lets me make some simplifying assumptions about the capabilities of the browser environment, and may also help solve some security issues.


Site scans: a RESTful case study

I’ve been thinking a lot recently about REST, resource design and addressability, so I was interested to read an article by Troy Hunt on the particular challenges of creating URLs that refer to other URLs.


The scenario Troy describes is for a site that will perform a security scan of your website, and then show a report of the result. Addressability is an important concern, as once you have the results of the scan, you may want to forward them to other people.

Troy discusses two methods for including the URL to scan:

  1. Include it in the hierarchical part of the URL (ie, the part after http: and before ?, eg http://asafaweb.com/scan/troyhunt.com/Search)
  2. Include it in the query string, eg http://asafaweb.com/scan?url=troyhunt.com/Search.

He favours the second approach for practical reasons.

A RESTful approach

Troy’s article approaches this question from the point of view of addressability, rather than resource design, and makes a sensible recommendation given the basic premisses; however, the scenario he outlines presents a good opportunity to do a bit of resource design analysis, which can lead us to an even better answer.

First then, let’s think about the type of resource we’re dealing with.

I think it is fair to make a few assumptions about the scan resource and the application that generates it:

  • It will take some time to perform the scan;
  • It will take a fair amount of computing resources to perform the scan;
  • The scan will be accurate for the point in time at which it was created; a subsequent scan of the same URL may generate a different result;
  • It may be interesting to compare scans over time.

From these assumptions we can draw a few conclusions:

  • A scan is an expensive resource to create, and will have a series of different statuses over its lifetime; this means we are looking at a transactional resource model here;
  • As a URL can be scanned more than once, it is not on its own a sufficient identifier of any scan.

If we follow these conclusions, we can make a sketch of the process of performing a scan:

1. Trigger the scan

We make a POST request with the details of the scan we want:

POST http://asafaweb.com/scans
{ "url": "http://troyhunt.com/Search", "options": {…} }

Note that we are POSTing to /scans; this request will create resource subordinate to that collection. Also, as we are making a POST request, we can include further information about the scan we want, perhaps indicating which criteria we are interested in and what level of detail we require; I have indicated this possibility by including an options parameter.

The server responds not by showing us the results of the scan — they haven’t been produced yet —, but by telling us where to look for the results:

201 Created

2. Check the scan URL

We can go and check this URL straight away by performing a GET:

GET http://asafaweb.com/scans/{xyz}

As the scan is still running, we don’t see the results, but rather a representation of a scan that is still in progress:

200 OK 
{ "scan": {
  "status": "in progress", 
  "url": "http://troyhunt.com/Search", 
  "created": "2011-09-18 11:57:00.000", 
  "options": {…} 
} }

Indeed, if there are a large requests for scans, Troy may have to implement a queueing system, and our scan may have a status of "queued" until it can be processed; we could even cancel a scan by PUTting a representation with a status of "cancelled" to its URL, or perhaps simply by issuing a DELETE request.

3. Retrieve the scan

A little while later, the scan has completed. Perhaps we keep performing a GET on its URL until it’s done; perhaps we have submitted an email address in the initial POST, and have now received email notification that it is ready.

We perform another GET to see the results:

GET http://asafaweb.com/scans/{xyz}

And the server responds:

200 OK 
{ "scan": {
  "status": "complete", 
  "url": "http://troyhunt.com/Search", 
  "created": "2011-09-18 11:57:00.000", 
  "options": {…}, 
  "results": {…} 
} }

We can now send the URL http://asafaweb.com/scans/{xyz} to  other people, and they will see the same results. The server doesn’t have to rescan the site, so retrieving these results can be a quick, inexpensive operation.

4. Search for scans

Throughout this example, I have used {xyz} to indicate the unique identifier of the scan. I have deliberately not given details of what this identifier might be. However, as I said earlier, the URL to scan is not a sufficient identifier, as we want to allow the possibility of scanning the same URL more than once. This identifier could include the URL, but this may not be the ideal solution, both for the technical reasons that Troy indicates in his article, and because this will produce very long identifiers, where we could probably make do with short strings of characters.

The result of this is that we have a system that is eminently addressable, but which uses identifiers that bear an opaque relationship to the scanned URL, and fails the findability criterion. I can easily send a URL like http://asafaweb.com/scans/f72bw8 to a friend, but if they do not have that address, they have no way of guessing that this is the address of a scan of my site.

To remedy this, we can implement a search interface. We already have an address for the entire collection of scans, viz /scans, so  now we can just refine the response to a request of this URL with a query parameter:

GET http://asafaweb.com/scans?url=http://troyhunt.com/Search

The server can then respond with a listing of all the scans that meet these criteria:

200 OK
{ "scans": {
  "url": "http://troyhunt.com/Search",
  "results": [
      "status": "complete",
      "created": "2011-09-18 11:57:00.000",
      "link": {
        href: "http://asafaweb.com/scans/f72bw8"
      "status": "complete",
      "created": "2011-08-28 17:36:24.023",
      "link": {
        href: "http://asafaweb.com/scans/89ew2p"
} }

Each result has a link to its location, so all results can be retrieved at any time.

By recognising that our scans are resources that can be searched, and by providing a means to perform that search, we have restored findability to our interface. Also, the fact that our search criterion is a refinement of a more general request, and thus appears in the query string, means that we arrive at a very similar conclusion the one Troy reaches in his article, but this time for reasons based on resource design, rather than practicality.

Applicability to web sites

I have given all my examples in JSON, as it offers a concise and easy-to-read format for technical discussions. However, all of this discussion would work equally well with HTML web pages:

  1. The user fills in and submits a form to request a scan, and is redirected to the scan page;
  2. The scan page shows a message telling the user the scan is in progress;
  3. After a while a page refresh reveals the results of the scan, and the user can send the page URL to their contacts;
  4. The /scans page offers a search form into which the user can enter their URL and retrieve a list of all the dated scans for that location.

A couple of the implementation details will differ, because of the limited number of HTTP verbs and status codes that browsers can deal with, but the principles are exactly the same.